Another resource included on the ws but I didn't includei n the lesson - http://www.bl.uk/treasures/gutenberg/background.html
|Site:||Mountain Heights Academy OpenCourseWare|
|Course:||Advanced Graphic Design Q2|
|Book:||READ/WATCH: The Printing Press|
|Printed by:||Guest user|
|Date:||Tuesday, 31 March 2015, 8:25 AM|
In the following articles and information, you will read about Johannes Gutenberg and his historic invention of the printing press. Take notes. You can complete the worksheet assignment while you read through the material.
While the Renaissance is most noted for its beautiful works of art, this period also introduced a more homely invention that soon reshaped the world—the printing press. Monks produced most books, painstakingly copying them by hand. The manuscripts they created were often very handsome, with painted decorations and illustrations, they were also very expensive, and so were used mainly by churches and by wealthy patrons among the nobility.
With the rise of universities in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, there was a growing demand for textbooks, Stationers in university towns kept a stock of these, which they copied themselves or lent to students for copying. A library of a hundred books was considered large, and the volumes were chained to shelves because of their value.
Most of the components of printing were known in Europe by the fifteenth century. Paper had been introduced from the East around 1200. Presses were used in making wine and olive oil. Block printing —utilizing a piece of wood with words and pictures carved out of it——was employed for making playing cards and religious posters.
The key invention in printing was movable type: individual letters that could be reassembled and used over and over again. This, too came from the East, but was little used there because Chinese characters are too numerous to make it practical. Movable type was invented independently in Europe, probably by Johannes Gutenberg some time in the early fifteenth century.
Gutenberg lived most of his life in Mainz, Germany. Although exact records are not available, most historians would agree he was probably born around 1400 and died by 1468. He produced a Bible in 1448 and a missal between 1448 and 1452. His greatest achievement was the so-called forty-two-line Bible, or Gutenberg Bible, printed between 1450 and 1455.
Printing spread rapidly to the rest of Europe Italy, France and the Netherlands were noted for their fine printers, who were responsible for a number of innovations. William Caxton, the first English printer, produced an edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales in 1478. This book often poked fun at the Catholic Church and contributed to people’s concern that changes needed to be made within the church.
By 1500 there were 40,000 recorded editions of books, printed in fourteen different European countries. Although editions were small in those days averaging fewer than a thousand copies, the total is impressive nonetheless. Most early printed books were copies of older works that had been popular in manuscript form. It was not until the Reformation, the era of religious change and reform, that printing became a powerful communications medium for the spread of new ideas.